Technological developments such as microelectronic devices with smaller features and faster operating speeds, higher-power electro-mechanical machines, and brighter optical devices are driving increased thermal loads and require advancements in cooling.
As per Moore's Law, the number of transistors per square inch on integrated circuits roughly doubles every year, which is assumed to continue for the foreseeable future. This will result in more powerful electronic devices that generate more heat. Improper and non-uniform dissipation of this heat affects the reliability and performance of the electronics.
As per International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (iNEMI) Technology Roadmap, the maximum projected power dissipation from high-performance microprocessor chips will reach about 360W by 2020. The micro and power-electronics industries face the challenge of removing very high heat flux and at the same time make the power dissipation on the chip or device more uniform. The electronics face a danger of failure, warping, reduction in performance and explosions due to improper cooling.
Similarly, production capacity of electro-mechanical machines (eg. linear motors) is constrained due to improper cooling. Heat accumulation translates to lower throughput thus incurring loss for the industry.
Conventional cooling technologies are not sufficient for the increasing cooling requirement of future electronics. In current liquid cooled systems, water or other coolants are being used. The only way to increase their thermal performance is to suspend nanoparticles in these liquid coolants and make nano-fluid coolants.
Our solution enhances the thermal performance of the base-fluid (eg. water) by converting it into nanofluid. This is done by suspending nanoparticles in the base-fluid to develop stable, highly reliable and thermally superior nanofluids. These nanofluids are made by dispersing nanometer-sized particles of metals (Al, Cu, Ti) or metal oxide (Al2O3, CuO, TiO2) in base-fluid. Nanofluids can possess up to 40% higher thermal conductivity compared to base-fluid and can be more effective cooling agents than the base-fluid. Nanofluids also possess considerably higher convective as well as boiling heat transfer compared to their conventional base-fluids.
High-tech Industries are developing power electronics and electro-mechanical machines which are currently being actively or passively cooled by liquid coolants. With highly desirable enhanced thermal properties, nanofluids can offer immense benefits and potential for cooling of electronics and other high-tech equipment.
Benefit of using nanofluids
High Tech equipment – electromechanical machines
High power LED
Lighter and compact heat sinks
More freedom to design the luminaire or cooling system
Higher intensity of light and more focus
Increased efficiency of optical device
High-power electronics – Laptops, power converters, automotive batteries etc.
Higher performance and lifetime
Reduced risk of failure
Longer battery life
Reduced electricity consumption
Compact cooling systems reducing floor area
Heat recovery from servers possible